Module 2, Chapter 5 (Mainly Stitched Shapes)


Everything in this chapter seems to have got muddled up, and I’ve hopped backwards and forwards, and experimented, and I haven’t put activity numbers on anything, but I have been ticking things off my check list, and I think I’m covering everything. The A3 pages are still scanned in in two parts because I haven’t found a satisfactory way of dealing with them.

This page was really to practice stitching with the embroidery foot on and the feed dogs down, and I was pleased with it.


More stitching, on layers of newspaper.


Trying to stitching in interlocking circles. I’ve used lots of strips in neat, tidy arrangements, but I wanted to try something different, so I used long thin strips of tissue paper (left over from my elder daughter’s wedding), and sandwiched it between two layers of Bondaweb, with a newspaper backing. Then I used the embroidery foot to stich interlocking circle-like shapes to hold it all down, in various shades of purple thread (darkest first). Then I used silver metallic thread on top, which worked quite well and was surprisingly easy to use – I thought if would be tricky to use in the machine.Would love to try this with something like soluble film, but that would be no good, because you couldn’t get the paper wet.


Next up, Layers of newspaper and tissue, stitched in straight lines, then cut between the rows of stitching with sharp scissors to create a chenille effect. These samples were bigger to start with, but I got a bit over-enthusiastic with the scissors! And they got flattened when I scanned them – the cut edges stand up beautifully when you rub a soft brush over them.




The next page has lots of little squares of different papers stitched to newspaper, withe embroidery foot, using different tensions and techniques. As I went along I made some very hasty notes ob an old notepad, so I stuck them in the Sketchbook. I could have been a bit more organised in my approach.mainly-stitch-11mainly-stitch-12

Who remembers making rows of little dancing girls, all holding hands, from paper?

Or Snowflakes? I was trying to practice stitching spirals, on different kinds of paper, but I think they would have looked better with star-like straight lines through each point. On the plus side, I have managed to cover an A3 sheet of paper!!! It’s a sheet from a huge book on Norman Rockwell, which was destined for the recycling sacks in Oxfam because no-one wanted it.





Next up… Hand stitching on paper. Loved this, and kept notes! Snowflakes led to experiments cutting holes in other shapes.  I cut a rectangle from the cover of a manuscript sheet music book, then folded it and cut shapes to make diamonds when it was unfolded. I was going to stitch it straight into the sketchbook but, as I’ve said before, an A3 sketchbook is very cumbersome to work with, so I cut a page out. As it was still unwieldy I cut it in half again, so I’m still working on a much smaller scale than I’d planned.

I used soft embroidery thread to stitch French knots, with a tapestry needle, because it had a big eye which was easy to thread, but it was like sewing with a poker and was really difficult to push or pull through the paper – making holes beforehand might have made it easier. And, should anyone wonder, although tapestry needles have blunt ends, they can inflict a surprising amount of damage to fingers and thumbs…

Then I used ordinary sewing thread to make a kind of star stitch over the diamond holes, with a nice, sharp, pointed needle which enabled me to make holes from the front as I went along, so it was easier to pull thread through from the back of the work. The back is a mess. Lots of knots, and the odd blob of glue to keep ends from unravelling – but no-one is going to see it. When I’d finished I had a brainstorm and trimmed off all the excess sketchbook page, which was silly, because it was supposed to be a vital part of my work.

Anyway, in the interests on experimentation I brushed watered-down white acrylic over it, but it didn’t make much impact, so I let the stitched paper dry, then used the paint straight from the tube, but the stitching is still black. However, I’m not sure if I like the effect, but I might add more paint. I think a similar design with a different colour background would be better.

I kept the cut-out diamonds, cut them all in half to make triangles, then used doubled purple sewing thread and French knots (again) to stich them to layers of a brown napkin made from recycled paper (I accidently took more than I needed when I had some coffee in a café!). I sewed them in a random pattern (which means there is no pattern), and used one French on each, so the edges curled up a little, and it looked quite textured, and I enjoyed doing this – the napkin was actually quite easy to sew, as it handled more like fabric, and was very soft. However, painting it may have been a mistake. Thick acrylic just went patchy and was difficult to paint on, while watered-down acrylic soaks into the paper napkins. And it stuck my little triangles down, but I’ve managed to prise some of them loose! ! On reflection, I wonder if a different type of paint would be better. Emulsion is probably too thick, but gesso might have worked.


Stitched and glued shapes:


And shapes/patterns with counterchange. This was SUCH fun when I worked out what I was doing.And I made notes (again!). I like the arched shapes cut from an OS map and a magazine page If you put it the other way round, with the small shapes at the top, you have a tree. This way they look like some of  the The Arches (the railway viaduct which is very much a feature of Tamworth), viewed diagonally as they cross the River Anker and surrounding land.


This one was done with magazine pages, and I love it – I want some wallpaper with a design like this…


The design above was created from newspaper and magazine pages.

The next page is samples, to see if this technique works with other shapes, like circles, and it does, but I think it’s best left simple. Would love to use this method to design patchwork, or embroidery.


The two pictures for the next page are quite self-explanatory – because I was looking at ways of creating patterns with paper, rather than simply using strips or squares, I wanted to try using a bit from a photo I’d taken. I enjoyed the process and, on the whole I’m quite pleased with the result. I kept it really simple, but I’d like to develop this idea, and try something more complicated, and add stitching.


The next few pieces are all made by using large jigsaw pieces as templates for my shapes – I had an idea of what I wanted to do, and bought a children’s puzzle from a charity shop. They’re fun shapes to work with, because you can actually use them to make a picture or, better still you can mess around with them – take some out to leave gaps, or use different papers, so when they’re joined they make no sense, or just replace one or two pieces. I stitched round them to attach them to backing paper, and they are a bit fiddly, but I like the effect. The first was a nightmare though – the picture on the paper I cut up was just too strong, and I couldn’t see what I was doing, so I gave up and glued the pieces into shape.




I’ve cropped and enlarged the piece with the holes in, but they still don’t show very well.

mainly-stitch-38-2And now for an experiment:


I enjoyed doing this soooo much. It’s not perfect, and there are things I would do differently next time around, and the stitching could be better, and I’m not sure if it needed more stitching, or less stitching, and a touch of a contrasting colour might have been good., and you can’t really see  that it’s done with paper. But it ended up looking and feeling like fabric, which is quite magical, and I love it the way it is. I’ve transformed flat smooth papers into a shimmering textured surface, with lovely, bright, vibrant colours – hot pink, copper and orange, and it gleams and glitters, and glistens but, sadly,  it doesn’t show up very well in photos or scans. However, I’ve downloaded a photograph of the finished piece as well, in the hopes that it might look slightly better than the scan.dscn9351





Module 2, Chapter 5: Additional Activity – Helen Edwards


This is my rather feeble effort at producing something similar to something I saw by textile artist Helen Edwards. This is the sample with little squares stitched on individually.

Back in the summer, while I was cat and rabbit sitting for my Elder Daughter in Plymouth, I popped into 45 Southside, which is a lovely little shop/gallery in The Barbican, and spotted some fabulous stitched paper art by Devon-based multi-media artist Helen Edwards. I like the way she is recycling paper, and that grid-like formation of squares – a little like Rosalie Gascoigne perhaps, but not so raw. Anyway, Iwas worried about taking photographs there, so I took pictures off a website (her’s, or the shop’s, or – sorry, but I didn’t take proper notes and can’t remember which).


Stitched paper artwork by Helen Edwards. This was my favourite. I love the colour blue, and I thought this worked really well with just blue and white. It reminded me of blue and white china, although the subject matter is different.



‘Beano’, a stitched paper artwork by Helen Edwards

They’re about 15 inches x 18 inches, and are created out of pages from books, mainly comic book annuals I think, but she also recycles things like music manuscripts. They consist of a series of squares, overlaid with other squares, which are flapped back at the corners to form triangles, turning the lower squares into diamonds. The layers are stitched, and on some of the works the threads hang loose. It is difficult to see exactly how the base layer is created – it looks as if it’s made from lots of square rather than a single picture, and the folded layer also appears to be constructed from lots of small pieces. Perhaps there is some kind of third layer under the other two, to stabilise everything. The flapped-back triangles make it three-dimensional – some of them stand upright, some lie almost flat, others are at an angle, and they create interesting shadows (though this may be unintentional, and probably depends on the position and quality of the lighting wherever they are hung). You don’t get the full effect from a photograph, but they really caught my imagination, and although I was still on Chapter 4 at the time, I thought they would tie in nicely with Chapter 5, so I did a bit of research.

I  couldn’t find much about her, but there’s an interesting interview on in which she says: “I feel fortunate that I had the chance to train formally in Art/Design and Contemporary Craft in my forties, following a rewarding 21 year career as a Speech and Language Therapist. During this training I realised how much I loved texture, pattern and construction. I was encouraged to handle many different materials and this has carried through into my work today. The tactile quality of my pieces is as important as the visual quality.”

A member of the Society of Designer Craftsmen and the Devon Guild of Craftsmen, she works with a huge range of artistic techniques and materials, including metal, textiles and ceramics. You can see some of her work at her website.


‘Strongheart’, a stitched paper artwork by Helen Edwards.


‘I can give you the starlight’, stitched paper artwork by Helen Edwards. You can see the hanging threads quite clearly in this one. It wasn’t in the shop but I found it online, and included it here because I think it’s beautiful.

I thought I would have a go at something similar, but decided it would have to be much simpler, so I used a page from a magazine as my base, and this wrapping paper for my top layer, because I thought the squares were fairly regular and would be easy.


But the squares were not very square, and trying to stitch on paper that has a stitched design is a big mistake! Anyway,  I left the magazine page base as it was, then used the embroidery foot on the sewing machine to stitch the wrapping paper to it around the edges, and around some squares, then used a small pair of sharp scissors to cut diagonal lines through the top layer of each square on the grid. It’s actually very difficult to pierce the top layer of paper without cutting the lower layer – the sample ended up much smaller than it started, because I mutilated quite a bit of it!


This is the only bit of the original sample fit to be seen! Basically I stitched two layers of paper together, then slashed a cross in the centre of each square to make four smaller squares in each one, and folded the corners back. It’s neater than using separate pieces, but difficult to cut.

I tried another sample using little squares, and stitching each one on separately, which is also quite tricky, as the folded triangular flaps get in the way of each other, and the end result isn’t very straight, but I guess that doesn’t matter. I cut off all the loose threads because I was getting in a tangle, and I used the embroidery foot on the machine, because I thought it would be narrower and easier to manoeuvre than a normal foot, but I couldn’t get the tension right – I think this was ambitious considering how little experience I’ve had with machine embroidery, but I enjoyed trying.

It probably works better if you measure everything very thoroughly to start with and draw guidelines. And I think you need stiffer paper, with slightly more body to it than wrapping paper and a pages from a magazine. My efforts are bigger than Helen Edwards’ work, and it was still very fiddly. It was a real learning curve, but I have got ideas on how this could be improved.


A sideways view of my pieced sample, showing the flapped back triangles.

NB: I’ve got notes and pictures in the sketchbook, but my samples are in a box, to stope them getting flattened. And I was struggling to scan in big pages, so I’ve keyed my notes in and downloaded the photos.


Module 2, Chapter 5: Recycled Papers (Mainly Strips)


2.5.1: Paper and Glue

Well, it’s December, and I don’t seem to be as far forward as I had hoped. It’s been a funny sort of year really, starting on a high with our Younger Daughter’s graduation (her second), and our Elder Daughter’s wedding, both of which, as you can imagine, were lovely, happy occasions which left us with some wonderful memories. And I’ve been very glad of these bright spots to look back on, because not long after that my Mother was ill, and as she recovered we finally acknowledged just how bad her memory is, and how much help she needs to cope with everyday life. I seem to have been backwards and forwards every week for months, checking that everything is OK, liaising with carers, organising visits to doctors, audiologists, and goodness knows who else. It’s all very stressful, and I haven’t had much time to spare, but the Creative Sketchbook Course has become something of a lifesaver, although I’m working even more slowly than usual. It is so satisfying to play around with paper, paints, glue etc – very therapeutic!

I haven’t quite finished Chapter 5, but here is record of my work and thoughts so far. A lot of it is little samples: experiments, to see what happens! I think I’m actually supposed to be creating new sheets of paper from old (a little like the magician in Aladdin!) with flat surfaces that can be used for painting or printing,  but I ended up being more interested in creating colours, patterns, textures…  I’m not sure they would all be suitable for using as a base for other techniques, and I’m even less sure that I want to cover some with paint or gesso, because I like them as they are! Anyway, here goes.

The Sketchbook: I chose to work in an A3 book, because everything else I have done has been on A4, A5, A6, and smallish square books, so I thought it would be good for me to work on a larger scale, and using recycled papers seemed to lend itself to bigger things. But I’ve found the sketchbook very cumbersome – it is really awkward to work in, and the size, and the sight of all that white paper is really intimidating. I tried painting and printing on some pages to add colour and pattern, and I tried to divide the pages up, to make them easier to work with, and to make them look more interesting. But I haven’t really achieved my aim of working on a larger scale. And it is really tricky to display sketchbook work on the blog, because the pages are to big to scan in, and I’m having problems getting enough detail into photographs, so I’ve posted bits of pages, if that makes sense.

2.5.1: Make a collection of recycled papers.


My treasure of recycled papers.

I’ve amassed a box full of papers, which I mentioned in a post here, so I’ve used the photo again. I’ve been dipping in and out of the box for previous activities, using the contents as and  when inspiration strikes. Since I keep adding things, the box of papers never gets any less, or any tidier, but I love rooting through it. There’s junk mail; old books, maps and manuscripts; magazines; wrapping paper; wallpaper samples; paper bags; food wrappers, and all sorts of other bits and bobs, as well as interesting bits of paper for printing, writing, stamping etc, and some oddments I really like – postcards, birthday cards, that kind of thing.

2.5.1 (Additional), Paper Grain:

Generally paper is manufactured from wood pulp, but it can be made from a variety of plant material, as well as some fabrics.It comes in all kinds of different weights, textures, and surfaces, and can be thin or thick, hard or soft, smooth or rough. But I’d forgotten it also has a grain, depending on which way the majority of the fibres in the pulp lie during the paper-making process. If they lie lengthways, along the longest side of the paper, then the end product is ‘grain long’. If they lie across the shortest edge it is ‘grain short’. This affects the properties of paper – water absorption, strength, lying flat etc (for example, books are usually bound with the binding parallel to the grain because then the pages will lie flat.

It also affects the way paper tears – if you tear in the direction of the grain you’ll a fairly straight line, but if you tear against it you get more jagged edges, which can be exploited for this chapter, because they make interesting shapes. The main problem is knowing which way the grain lies, because that is established during the manufacturing process, and it doesn’t necessarily mean that ‘long grain’ runs the length of your printing paper, book or magazine (though I think it usually does).

Anyway, I did some samples, just to show the difference.


2.5.1 (Additional): Cutting Edges:

Thinking about the way paper tears led me to explore different ways of cutting paper.

  • Tearing ‘freehand’ – No good if you want a really straight edge, but does give interesting shapes.
  • Tearing along a folded edge – Gives a fairly straight edge, but kind of fuzzyish, so you can usually see fibres along the edge.
  • Tearing against a ruler – Slightly straighter, but still with a kind of fuzzyish edge, so you can usually see fibres along the edge.
  • Using two hands to pull the paper apart – Uneven, but I like the effect. Depends what you are doing.
  • Scissors – Very straight, very even, with no fibres showing at the edge.
  • Craft knife – I have to admit that I’m a bit of a dunderhead with a craft knife but, like scissors, it does give very straight, very even edges, with no fibres showing.
  • Fine paint brush dipped in water to ‘paint’ lines which can be gently torn or pulled apart. This is really good for circles.shapes with wavy edges, and irregular shapes. I should remember to make more use of this technique.

And I did a few samples:


2.5.1: Gathering Glues:

I seem to have plenty of glues, and I did some experiments with glue and tracing paper back at the start of the year when I was doing 2.1, and I acquired some more glues when I was doing glue drawing,  but some of the glues I had weren’t really suitable for doing the Activities in this Chapter, and it’s a long time since I used home-made glues, so I was happy to have a play and see what worked best.

PVA (which apparently stands for polyvinyl acetate) can be a bit gloopy, but if it is too thick, you can water it down. It’s cheap, covers large areas fairly easily, dries fairly quickly and evenly, and gives good adhesion. On the downside, for activities like those in this chapter, where you have glue on the surface, it makes things shiny, and I’d rather have paper with its natural surface.

Wallpaper Paste is brilliant – it covers large areas really easily, gives a nice even, flat surface (sometimes you get a few bubbles, but they usually disappear as it dries). I like the way it allows you to slide paper shapes around on the base layer of paper, and it sticks really well, but it takes ages and ages and ages to dry. And it made my hands itch. I should have worn vinyl gloves, or tried to track down wallpaper paste without fungicide.

Artists’ Gel Medium is excellent – it dries very quickly, with a flat, smooth surface, and is a really strong glue. I bought the matte one, because I didn’t want shiny surfaces, and I liked using this, and how effective it was. This was my favourite but, sadly, it’s way too expensive to use on large areas, but I used it on some of the strips, applying it to each piece of paper (rather than covering the base paper).

Flour and Water Raw mixed together and used cold (without cooking it) wasn’t very effective – perhaps I had the proportions wrong. I used a cup of water and a cup of flour, but the papers came unstuck quite quickly, so I resorted  to matte gel medium to make them stick.

Flour and Water Cooked There are all kinds of recipes online, and in craft books, but the basic recipe (which I used to make when my daughters were small) is one part flour to three parts water (I used I cup of plain flour and three cups of water, which made an awful lot –  too much really). I just whisked it all together, and heated it slowly in an old saucepan, stirring it all the time with a wooden spoon. If you put it in an airtight container in the fridge it keeps for a week so. You can whisk it up again, and add a bit more water if it goes too thick. It was actually quite effective, and dried evenly, with good adhesion. It took a little while to dry – nowhere near as long as the wallpaper paste, but not as quick as PVA.

NB: I tended to use PVA, but did apply different glues for different activities, although I didn’t always remember to make a note of which was which!


NB: Rolling Edges Flat – Throughout this chapter, where I’ve used glues, I rolled my shapes flat with a lint roller (the kind used to get cat hairs off clothes!). The have a lovely loose rolling movement (I use them for printing as well), and they roll papers and glue nice and flat. You can pick them up dead cheap, and if you leave the shiny paper cover over the sticky roller (or just stick some paper to the tacky surface) it doesn’t stick to things. Additionally, one of those little ‘cushions’ that cleans condensation off windscreens is good for smoothing and pressing down glued papers. A large, plastic pet food mat makes a brilliant working surface, which is easy to wipe clean, and I bought flat brushes, which looked like small household paintbrushes, and were ideal for spreading glue on paper.

2.5.2 (Using Glue to make Recycled Papers), and 2.5.3 (Stitching to make Recycled Papers).

I thought it would be easy to stick to the various activities but, as usual, they all got a bit jumbled together, and I forgot to stick some things in, and added them later, or thought of trying something when I was in the middle of something else, so things hop about a bit. , But I think I’ve covered everything – glueing and stitching newspaper torn into strips; other papers torn into strips;  patches of paper; headlines and large letters from magazines, newspapers and other used papers and pasted on to a sheet of newspaper leaving gaps to allow the smaller print to show through; weaving). Additionally, there are some extra activities that were my own explorations.

These are all scanned in, and I’ve had to do two for each page, and they seem to be missing some edges. Sorry. Anyway, here we go!

On this page I used wallpaper paste to glue torn newspaper strips onto a page of newspaper, and it stuck very well, but took for ever and ever. Coating the base layer of paper with glue lets you slide pattern pieces around, and results in a smooth, flat surface – more so than you get by glueing the individual pieces I think. I guess it’s a similar technique to decoupage (not the 3D layered stuff people do today, but the kind that was incredibly popular in the 18th century, when people cut flowers and scenes and things from paper, stuck them onto a surface, and applied coat after of varnish, so the papers were ‘sunk’ in the layers, and you ended up with a seamless, smooth finish where you couldn’t see or feel the paper edges).


Next up, recycled pages from an old book and a magazine.


This one is a grid, made from torn Radio Times strips stuck onto painted newspaper. And  I had a little play to try out different methods of making shiny surfaces, though it doesn’t really show on screen. There isn’t really a lot to choose between them. The PVA (the cheapest) is as good as anything, smooth and glossy. But I rather like the acrylic wax, which isn’t quite so shiny – it’s more like a polished surface.


Here we have graduating strips from an old book on brown wrapping paper. I like the combination of colour and texture, and the way you can build up a pattern with strips of different widths.


Above (but below the graduated strips in the sketchbook) is a glossy magazine page that I cut strips in then threaded strips cut from an old book through the slots. It was a bit fiddly glueing bits in place, but I love this – I like the effect, and the contrast between the glossy, smooth surface of the magazine paper with the duller, rougher book page strips. I’d like to try this using hand embroidery to hold the strips in place – you could embroider the strips or the background. Each way would look quite different I think.


Oh, I had such fun with this next couple of pages. I cut a map into strips, and stuck them on a page from a paint sample book, then sliced it into three sections, and offset each row slightly, and trimmed everything up. You could make lovely patchwork this way, or use a design like this as some kind of canvaswork sampler perhaps. I included a photocopy of my original pattern, and then did some more photocopies and cutting and glueing, because I kind of wished I’d done the design differently! I loved, loved, loved this. But on the downside, the printed pages were much too busy, and there is way too much green and rd on the pages – a plain background would have been much better.


Below are two halves of a page where I had one of my ‘what if…’ moments, and used a shredder to make strips from old maps and book pages. The first one owes a lot to Rosalie Gascoigne (again!) and I used PVA to stick the strips onto an oddment of black sugar paper, which was a huge mistake, because the suigar paper soaked up glue like there was no tomorrow, and the strips kept coming coming unstuck. I don’t usually do shiny, but I kept brushing PVA over the finished surface, to try and hold everything down. It could probably do with another coat.

The other sample, still using shredded book pages, was on left from some printing experiments that went wrong. I wanted to try and get a diagonal pattern. Working with gaps between the strips was easier than the previous sample where they butted on to each other, and I used gel medium, which held them down nicely.


More shredded paper. First up a map, with strips made from unfolded ‘paper string’, which i bought under the impression it was garden twine! The red strips are shredded map, coloured with a wax crayon. This didn’t really go the way I wanted. Below that I chopped shredded strips up to make patterns and paper.



The next page was too nice (and too busy) to cover up, so I tried to make it part of a design by creating an outline of a square with long strips of blue paper. And I used more strips to echo the inside of the square on the opposite page. You can use your imagination to turn the boxes into anything you want.



At this point I thought; “Do strips have to have straight lines?: And having decided that they don’t, I chopped up strips with a pair of old pinking shears (I know, that sounds like sacrilege, but they really don’t well on material any longer). The top left sample was stitched on black paper, using the zigzag on the machine – I started trying to vary the length and width, but the thread kept breaking, so I left it). I like this, especially the way the pinked edges of the paper create a pattern with the black background. Top right the pinked paper strips are stitched to a piece of black felt, using various stitches. It works best where you use stitches that emphasise the edges, like columns 1 and 3. The star was stitched on yellow cellophane. And the folded black paper is just my notes.


The page below was an experiment, with lots of small samples using different papers and the brush and water method to make wavy edges. I found that OS maps don’t tear very easily, and the paintbrush and water method does not work on them – I guess they must be toughened and protected in some way. And the brush and water method doesn’t work on coloured photos on glossy magazine pages, although it works on text on the same pages. The coloured inks seem to form a resist.


I really enjoyed working on the next page. Having decided that strips don’t have to be straight, I wondered if they could have two different edges. So I cut wide strips from magazine pages, and cut fancy edgings. The fringing (the second one done) as a bit of a disaster – some bits got torn and bent, and it was flattened when I stuck it on the page, even though the fringe has no glue on it.


The bit I like best is my pointed edging at the bottom of the page – I stitched it on, and punched holes on the points to add short pieces of braid I made with twisted wool, and I added some of my hand-made beads. The problem wit it is that once I’d done that I realised the paper wasn’t really strong enough, so I put blobs of glue from the glue gun on the back, to hold the braids where they went through the back, and I tried gluing Vilene and more paper on the back, but the surface is too bumpy and they started coming apart. Next time I’ll strengthen the edge first, then embellish it.


Everything on this page was hand stitched. I found it quite tricky to stitch ‘freehand’ because it’s awkward on an unyielding surface, and trying to push the needle through from the back in the correct place wasn’t easy, and I got holes where I didn’t want them! So I made holes with different implements, trying to measure to get them equidistant. This wasn’t as easy as I thought it would be, because I couldn’t gauge the size of the stitches, and I still ended up with holes in the wrong places. Plus with some of them I forgot to put the cutting mat underneath the page, so I have a sketchbook with holes on a heap of pages!

Notes on making holes for stitching in paper

  • Machine, on straight stitch setting, with no thread top or bottom: Not as even as I thought it would be, with holes very close together – adjusting stitch length or speed  might help.
  • Awl (from my husband’s toolbox): Was OK.
  • Bookmaking awl: Much finer, and much better results – nice and neat, easy to use, not too big.
  • Japanese Screw Punch: Lots of people rave about these, so I treated myself, but I suspect it may be a waste of money. It’s not as simple to use as I thought. The hole was a bit big (but there are smaller end bit that you can buy) and it was such a fiddle-faddle cleaning paper out of it.
  • Thing that looks like a very narrow metal handle, with a very fine, very sharp needle-like point at one end: I have no idea what it is (it was among my mother’s art and needlework stuff). It’s quite effective, and the point is lethal!

Here’s a photo of them:


Next up is fattish, wavy edges strips (or perhaps they’ve morphed into some other shapes) which I cut from a magazine page and stuck onto a picture from a book on Norman Rockwell (rescued from the Oxfam recycling bags). The magazine cut-outs were intended as the focal point, and I as going to do some stitching, but the background pushed it’s way to the front and took centre stage! Regrettably, the red lines I drew my strips with are noticeable where I didn’t cut properly, but I think they look OK.


Below are a couple more experiments with wavy edges. One has strips cut with children’s fancy scissors, which are fun to use. The two left-hand ones at the bottom (on the red background) were done with the die cutter, and they’re nice and neat – and boring. The two on the left were done with little hand held punches. The punches and dies only do short strips and it’s awkward trying to match a repeat pattern to make them longer. More fun to make your own patterns I think.


I was trying to be clever here by cutting strips in a page to reveal the page below. And there’s a strip on the right with triangle cut out and flapped out. I enjoyed doing this, but you need to be very precise. And I didn’t think carefully enough about whether my pattern would hold together when it was cut – I kept things simple, but even so I ended up having to do a couple of repairs with glue and sticky tape! I’d like to handstitch the two pages together, but I haven’t got time at the moment.


I’m trying to break this down into several posts – this one is mainly glue and strips.

Rosalie Gascoigne Take 2


This a holding exercise, to show what I am trying to with my stitched book on Rosalie Gascoigne – wrapped wooden tea stirrers on back and front, by the spine, using garden twine, raffia, old embroidery threads and wire; braids to hang from them using variety of old yarns, sari silk and variety of techniques – plaiting (with 3 threads, 4 threads and different materials combine), lucet, twist, friendship bracelet knots (think these are actually macrame knots) etc; beads to hang from ends using newspaper and other recycled paper, wire, threads, paints, and various other bits and pieces eg shiny paper from packet of tea bags, and netting from oranges – I’ve zapped things with the heat gun, and found some stuff like that fuses OK, but it’s better adding a bit of Fibretex or Bondaweb or something like that first; little metal squares, cut from old tube of skin cream, with letter of alphabet incised on with crochet hook, then held in gas flame with VERY low flame; wire curls – you can see one of them on the covered stick, but I’ve done a lot of loose ones, using different sire, including green garden wire..

There are more things than this – these are the bits I’m working on at the moment, and nothing is properly finished, and the pictures are not very good – I am taking some better ones to stick in sketchbook and do a proper piece about it, so I’ll update this in a couple of days.

Now I need to work out how to put everything together….


Update (September 11): Lizzy Lewis (my tutor), had some  brilliant suggestions about making a cover with drink stirrers, so I’ve decided to change direction, and I’m working on ideas and samples in the sketchbook!

2.4: Health and Safety


Health and Safety

This is one of the things I tend to forget to include, although I do bear it mind while I’m working.Burning my finger on the soldering iron has prompted me to write something out for Module 2, Chapter 4, and rather than adding it to the main post, I’ve done a separate post (which is a little garbled), just to show I do think about these things.

Soldering Iron

DSCN7940 (2)

The soldering iron, in its pot, ready for  burnt plastic, burnt acetate and burnt finger to be cleaned from the tip!

I was trying to see if I could use the soldering iron to cut a stencil on an acetate sheet, using a plastic letter as a template, and the wooden bread board as a base to work on – none of which was a good idea. Luckily, the finger isn’t badly burned – I caught it, because I wasn’t paying attention, but it’s painful, and it’s the forefinger on the right hand, and I’m right-handed which makes it awkward to do things. And I’ve got nothing to show for my efforts, because I melted the side of the plastic letter, and the acetate melted unevenly but didn’t burn all the way through (and it smelled awful). And I’ve got burn marks on the bread board. All I can say in my favour is that I always rest the soldering iron through the hole of a big earthenware plant pot, and I don’t have trailing wires. But I shall be a lot more careful in future, and will invest in some kind of safer surface to work on, and remember to work in a well ventilated space, and to keep my fingers well away from the hot metal bits.

Cutting Metal

The aluminium cider can I cut the pen nibs from is easy to cut with an old pair of scissors, and the edges aren’t really sharp, but I usually wear gardening gloves to protect my hands. And after the incident with the soldering iron, I might start sanding the edges (with the gloves on) just to be on the safe side. The main issue is little bits of metal flying all over the place if you keep trimming it to get the right shape and size. In an ideal world I guess one should wear protective goggles, but glasses seem to offer some protection to your eyes – I wear my spare pair, so there’s no risk of damaging the decent ones.

Cutting with a Craft Knife

I’m not very good at this, but I use a self-healing cutting mat, and a cut against the edge of a thick plastic patchwork measure. And try to remember to cut away from me, and use the cover on the knife when it’s not in use.

Sewing Machine

Normally I use this in the spare room, and the desk it’s on is right next to the switch, and the wires are neatly tucked away between the desk and a book shelf. I never put drinks there, for fear of knocking them over, and if I’m changing needles, or putting a different foot on, or something like that, I usually switch off, or check that my foot is nowhere near the pedal!

My Little Shed (aka The Glory Hole)

DSCN7108This is where I store arty-crafty things and do quite a bit of work. It does get very messy (it’s very small and I’m not very tidy) but I do my best to put things away, to reduce the chance of spillages, breakages, accidents etc (I’ve got lots of drawers and some shelving). It does have electricity, and I’m very careful not to have trailing wires, and to ensure that anything electrical is switched off each time I leave, and I make sure I don’t leave drinks or water for painting on the side where the plug is (when I was working I once spilled fizzy pop over a computer keyboard, with disastrous consequences, and ever since then I’ve been wary of drinks near electrical stuff).


A plastic drawer unit supporting the work surface – there’s another one at the other end.

The work surface is under the window, so there’s plenty of good natural light, but I’ve got one of those spot-light type lamps that I can swivel around to get the light where I want, if I need it. The work surface (a board across the top of two plastic drawer units for storage) is exactly the right height for me (but too low for most people I expect) so I don’t get back ache or anything. And the chair is an old folding wooden garden chair, which is also exactly the right height for someone who is five foot nothing, and just perfect with the work surface. If I’m doing anything that could involve fumes I can work with the door open (wide open when it’s sunny, and wedged ajar with a brick when it’s cold and wet!).I keep plenty of baby wipes and kitchen roll for mopping up and cleaning things.

I don’t have to worry about children or animals, and anything hazardous is labelled (but some jars of made-up Brusho ink and Procion dyes are not labelled, and I have no idea which is which, and the liquids look remarkably similar).

I’m very lucky, because my husband made the shed for me a couple of years ago, and he even insulated it, and put the tiniest electric oil radiator in there for mega-icy winter weather! Then, when I showed Mum some photos she was so impressed she gave me cash to buy storage containers to replace the ill-matched assortment of cardboard boxes I had been using.


2.4 Rosalie Gascoigne


I’ve been playing around again, and I’ve made a book about Rosalie Gascoigne, from recycled paper (stitching recycled paper is Chapter 5, and stitched books are Chapter 10, so I’m ahead of myself!)..Pictures first, explanation last! Here’s the front and the back (no covers). If you look carefully you can see the stitches down the spine.

And all the pages, scanned in before I stitched them together:

gascoigne 1

gascoigne 2

gascoigne 3

gascoigne 4

gascoigne 5

gascoigne 6

gascoigne 7

gascoigne 8

gascoigne 9

gascoigne 10

gascoigne 13

gascoigne 14

gascoigne 15

gascoigne 16

gascoigne 17

gascoigne 18



For some reason I really liked Rosalie Gascoigne’s work. I’m not sure why, but it struck a chord somehow, and I like the idea of using recycled things. So everything here is reused or left over. The book was rescued from an Oxfam recycling bag – it had lost its covers and was shedding pages. The pictures of her work were printed on the back of my husband’s old worksheets (from when he was teaching – we seem to have a never-ending supply of them). The red thread was in a box of oddments in a charity shop, and the sepia ink was among the art and calligraphy things my mother gave me. And I still had metal from the old cider can I used before, so I made two pen nibs specially for this, one slightly thicker than the other, and taped them to handles made from the long wooden handle of a grotty old paint brush.

Initially I intended to paint the surface, but it seemed a shame, because there is some wonderful patchy yellowing and browning, and wanted to leave the printed words and pictures rather than trying to hide them. I’m not sure this is totally successful – it foes make it difficult to read. Anyway, I tore the pages into squares, strips and rectangles, to echo the shapes in Gascoigne’s work. I joined them together using a zigzag stitch on the sewing machine. I ought to have done some samples first, but I was so excited about trying this I jumped straight in, and learned as I went along. First I tried stitching with the pieces butted up against each, but this was very tricky, because the paper is rather brittle, and the edges weren’t straight, even though I tore them against the edges of a ruler.I really liked the effect of producing uneven gaps (I seem to remember there’s a hand embroidery technique called faggoting where you do this, but it’s all very even and delicate). However, because the paper is fragile it didn’t seem very stable and in some places I couldn’t get a long enough stitch to hold the paper together. But it would be nice for a different project – a hanging perhaps, with hand stitching.

Anyway, in the end I overlapped the pieces, which did seem to make the paper slightly firmer, and everything held together better. I varied my stitch length and width – in the end I found longer with a medium width held the paper together best, and didn’t look too bad, though I’f have liked it to be slightly smaller. I supposed I could have used a cream thread, which wouldn’t have been as noticeable, but noticeable stitching is what I wanted. I felt that if you are going to join things up like this you should be able to see the joins! I left my loose ends because last time I did something (when I was messing around with glue) I cut them off, then wished I hadn’t. But by the time I’d written on the paper it looked awful – much too busy. So I trimmed them, but left small bits.

Writing on the surfaces I’d created wasn’t easy: I couldn’t write over the stitching, so I left gaps in words and continued on the other side (though on one page I did try writing different bits in each ‘box’ but they were too small and the text got muddled). I thick a spirit-based felt tip marker might have been more successful (and more legible), but I wanted the writing to look uneven and faded, and in any case it wouldn’t have fitted in with what I was trying to do.

I did consider trying to print pictures of her work on pages from the book, but I thought that would alter what she’d done, because the colour and print would show through. So I thought of recycling the old photocopies. I started with smaller pictures, and was going to to stick them to break the copy up, but they looked something of nothing, so I printed them bigger and gave each one a page to itself, because they are the important thing. I tore round the edges of the pictures – I tried distressing one edge, which looks good, but takes sooooooo long…. So I left them as they were.

Then I stab stitched all the pages together. I was going to make a front and back cover, but it was quite tricky making the holes, what with the uneven edges, and the stitching, and the way I pieced the pages, so I decided covers would just complicate things. I started stitching the spine with the red thread, but it was way OTT, and detracted from everything else, so I used cream thread, from the same box of bits, in the same charity shop, as the red.

I know this could be viewed as one my time-waster activities, and it’s not very innovative, and for something that is supposed to record research on an artist it’s not very legible, but I enjoyed planning and working on this so much. I’ve made a book, and I made all the pages in it, and the pens, and I used!!!!!  The only thing I haven’t made or recycled is the glue. Next time I do anything like this I might try good, old-fashioned flour and water paste, if I can remember how to do it. I had a very clear idea of what I was trying to do, and on the whole I’m quite pleased with it. Actually, if it’s not too being too big-headed to say so, I’m very pleased with it – really thrilled. So much so that if I did it again I don’t think it would be very different!

Bibliography/References (you can read a really interesting interview with her on this site)

( (all the pictures of her work came from here – it’s a brilliant resource for all kinds of artwork, though I’m not sure about copyright)

Workbook, Distant Stitch, Module 2, Chapter 10.



2.4. Another Detour


I’m not sure whether these really fit the remit for Chapter 4, and the post seemed to be getting awfully long, so I thought it might make things easier to put these pages in a separate post. It’s been in drafts while I finished my nook (see the Rosalie Gascoigne post) and since then I’ve been back to the sketchbook and decorated some more of the pages, and added in a few more things, but I haven’t scanned any of the additions. Again, the pages are self-explanatory, and samples more than anything else.They’re a bit self-indulgent really – I was curious to get some idea of the number of variations…. And I wish I’d used all recycled paper, rather than a photocopy shortcut, which doesn’t really save time, and isn’t so effective. I know, I keep saying that. I like the way that you can make the original letter disappear – and with some patterns I even created new letters, quite accidently!

detour a

detour b

detour c

detour d

detour e

detour f

detour l

detour m

Below: Glue drawing round a template (I used the clear sheet over the template, to trace it off), rubbed over with wax crayon and painted with acrylics on a nappy liner. You lose the sharpness of the outline with a glue drawing, and the lines are mostly doubled, but the shapes are more complete than my free-hand writing in glue!

detour o

2.4: Take a Letter (Activities)


Module 2, Chapter 4 Take a Letter

Individual letter shapes can provide a shape which can be used to create a whole range of patterns using both line and colour. Patterns can be sequential or rotational, symmetrical or asymmetrical and a huge variety can develop from one letter shape.

General Comments

I was going to write my notes up properly in the sketchbook, but I burnt my finger on a soldering iron trying to cut round a template to make stencil, and it’s awkward to write, so I’ve done this on the computer. As usual, some of the activities seem to have merged into each other, and I’ve gone off at a tangent and done my own thing.Somehow,  I don’t think I’m very good at following instructions!

Plus I didn’t read the Workbook properly, so to start with I used different letters, in different styles and different sizes. Overall my measurements, drawing and cutting were nowhere near as accurate as they should have been, especially with the grids, and even drawing round the letters was tricky, because they kept slipping, and my fingers got in the way. Then, when I tried to make patterns nothing matched up properly, so in the end I stuck mainly with plain, simple shapes. My father, bless him, was a draughtsman, and he would have had fifty fits at what I’ve done! He was a stickler for accuracy and attention to detail on stuff like this. I guess his job meant he had to be – he used to measure the thickness of my lines on geometry homework, then tell me how many degrees out my angles would be because the lines were too thick!

To be honest I really struggled with a lot of this chapter.  I just couldn’t get to grips with making patterns from letters (especially the rotational activities using diagonals, circles and squares as guidelines), and I failed to muster up much enthusiasm – apart from the interlocking ‘s’ shapes, which look a bit like Staffordshire knots.

But then I got to the bit where I had to produce something based on Rosalie Gascoigne’s work, and everything changed. I loved her work, and I loved using bits of a letter in a grid, and I loved the way it looked (even if it could have been more accurate). And at that point I suddenly thought hey, I could do this with recycled paper, so I decided I’d have a go, and things kind of took off from there, and I had a whale of a time playing around, and abandoned what I should have been doing, but I think I tried everything the Workbook suggested, albeit rather briefly.

I did resort to photocopies, for speed and convenience, but working with cut-out shapes from old magazines (bought at a charity shop in Plympton) was a bit of a light bulb moment because suddenly I could clearly see that the activities and techniques I’m learning on this course can all be combined and used elsewhere, not just in one particular exercise (this is something I’ve had slight problems with). So as well as making patterns, I had  a go at using a template as the basis for a glue drawing, and drawing round it with things other than a pencil or fineliner, and using colour wash and wet btush instead of blocking in solid areas with colour, and various other things. Amazing- you could take one letter and run with it for ever more, and never be lost for inspiration!

And I’m pleased that throughout this chapter I’ve been making the effort to use different tools to write notes (including a selection of dip pens and inks).

I think most of the pages from Sketchbook are self-explanatory – I’ve scrawled comments on some of them, and inserted sheets with notes on for others. It’s easy to follow in the sketchbook, but looks a bit odd on the blog, and may not always make sense. Most of the chapter was done at Pympton (near Plymouth) while I was cat and rabbit sitting for my elder daughter and her husband. I took my sketchbook (obviously), and pencils, felt tips, a little palette of water colours and another of those lovely Koh-I-Noor water-based dye discs, and squashed in the plastic cover from my worktop so I wouldn’t make a mess! And my daughter left out brushes, acrylics, glue, colouring pencils and other bits and pieces, so I managed quite well.

Some bits were finished off at home – and the booklet about Rosalie Gascoigne was created at home, because I wanted to do something different, and I set my heart on stitching recycled paper together, though I think this (and some of the other activities I’ve done) should really come under the umbrella of Chapter 5, but it just proves what I was saying about the various techniques being equally applicable to other exercises.

Activity 2.4.1: Creating patterns using a letter template or pattern.

Activity 1Activity 2Activity 3Activity 4Activity 5

I really liked this idea of placing ‘S’ shapes so they overlap – they look a bit like Staffordshire knots. Activity 6Activity 7

The colour reproduction on this is not good – they are pale, but not nearly as pale as they look here. I’m not sure why this has scanned in so ghostlike – especially as the page above is pretty accurate!Activity 8Activity 9

Below is a page where the design went really wrong, so it ended up as an ideas page… Just to remind me of the things you could do with templates…Activity 10


Module 2, Chapter 4, Extra ActivityMake a grid with rectangles or squares which will only take part of the letter template. The grid could have spaces which vary in size. Try out the letter in different ways on these new grids. Look at the work of  artist Rosalie Gascoigne.

I’ve done a separate post about Rosalie Gascoigne – I loved her work, and I loved working with bits of a letter, and I love this, even though it’s messy! That’s a lot of loves – sorry!Activity 11Activity 12

Activity 13

Below is the photocopy, with the grid drawn in. See what I mean about the colour variation on the left? And there’s a nice streaky effect there as well. Couldn’t have done that if I’d tried!Activity 14

And the final photocopy, with the letters outlined in black, as well as the grid. You will notice that the final bits of ink seem to be purple and blue… And in some boxes the printer hasn’t managed to find any substitute colour at all, and has just left them blank, which is actually quite effective because it provides a nice contrast. I would never have thought of doing that – an idea for the future perhaps?Activity 15

Module 2, Chapter 4, Activity 2 

Make a rotational pattern with a letter template using circles and diagonals as guidelines.The notes on the page below refer to the picture below that.

Activity 16

Activity 17

Activity 18

The page below refers to the picture above (they face each other in the sketchbook, so it makes more sense there).Activity 19

Below: This note refers to the page below it (which faces it in the sketchbook).Activity 20

I gave up on this one. Too many lines crossing each on that edging. I should have coloured them all the same, and not tried to create a pattern with several different blues – I thought it would look a bit like one of those interlaced Celtic designs. Just shows how wrong I can be!Activity 21

At this point I felt a little dejected. I wasn’t getting awfully excited about letter templates, apart from those knotted ‘S’ shapes and the fragments in the grid inspired by Rosalie Gascoigne, and I didn’t seem to be getting along very well with them. I wanted to try using the templates with printed pages instead, and to cut those up to make patterns. I have a feeling that what follows really belongs in  Chapter 5, which is all about recycling, but I LOVE working with old magazines, newspapers and books that are falling to pieces. And I like the way the original letter disappears, and you can create something something entirely new. Anyway, here goes..

Detour 1Detour 2Detour 3

As I said in my notes, things got a little out of order, so here is my original page of ‘e’s coloured in with what was, allegedly, a black felt tip… Luckily, I had another which covered it over very successfully.


Still working backwards (sorry)… Before I stuck the grid down I played around with the chopped up pieces of paper to see what I could come up with, photographing my efforts as I went along, so I have a record of what I did. First up, I just tipped them all into a random heap. You can have hours of fun with this one, shifting things round, moving them, piling them up… Brcause it’s 3D you get a textured effect, and with the right lighting you can make nice shadows which more interesting. It’s very ephemeral, like making things from stones on the beach, or leaves in a wood, bu there must be an effective way of making this permanent, with loose edges (not glued down). Perhaps you could just stitch through the centres of the pieces with a small straight stitch, or even a French knot to add texture. Anyway, you can view this from an angle… Which way do you think is best?

Still trying to use all the pieces in random fashion – a spiral. My version of that famous Matisse snail perhaps. Or the centre of a sunflower. Or the sun, or circles in the sand, or one of those nice spirals drawn in rock by prehistoric man… Or just me making a mess!


Next I took out all the pieces that look like part of a circle. And I did this – a lovely sequential pattern which reminds me of old records, and 1950s designs. You could use it as the basis for some quilting (if you have the patience – sadly, I haven’t), or patchwork, or applique, or something more textured using canvas.. Now that appeals to me…


And I rearranged them to create this, which seems to be sequential and symmetrical, if that is possible.


This one is till sequential, but I’ve moved one quarter around and turned all my fragments of ‘e’s into ‘q’s!


And I thought I’d try leaving one square blank, which isn’t as interesting as it could be.


So I removed a different square in each four-square block (selected rotationally) and laid them on a picture in a magazine, but it looks a bit messy.Basically, the backround is too busy.


And another way of arranging the pieces… In each four-square block the pieces are moved round rotationally. I like this one (actually, I like them all).


And for this one I focused on the black shapes rather than the printed areas:

DSCN7900I really enjoyed playing around with these shapes, and could have carried on indefinitely, but at this point the three cats decided I was having so much fun they wanted to join in, and by the time I’d rescued all my bits of paper I thought it was best to stick them into a random square before the cats got at them again!

Really, all these designs were small-scale experiments, a bit like the working sample books needlewomen used to produce in times gone by. You could rearrange the shapes in all kinds of ways, and use different sorts of recycled paper, and decorate the letters, or the gaps between them. And you get a much nicer effect if you stick to using recycled paper, rather than using photocopies. I was trying to corners, which is never a good idea.

2.3: Glue Drawing



Activity 2.3.1 (writing words or phrases with glue)  ran into 2.3.1 (making rubbings from glue drawings) and 2.3.3 (putting colour washes over the rubbings, then they morphed into the Extra Activities (using the glue as a resist, and using inks, Procion dyes and silk paints as colour washes. 

Markal Vilene

Look what I’ve done! Lots of new techniques and bold colours… Blue Markal oilstick rubbing over lettering with Hobbycraft Tacky PVA (on a transparent sheet). Brushed over with green Brusho ink and Procion yellow dye (while uncured). Then I stitched over it on the machine with shiny machine embroidery thread (it’s thicker than normal thread, and slightly twisted, and variegated in shades of blue, yellow and green). Wish I’d stitched to the edges and left cut threads hanging, instead of going up and down.



Markal stick rubbing on nappy liner, with yellow and green ink and dye. I let it dry and added some blue ink. (It’s pictured over a bit of the old patterned pillowcase.


Then I ironed it over the stitched Vilene, because I wanted to try something different. But even though I did some samples first, I couldn’t get the temperature right (I’m using my old iron, and the heat control is dodgy, which is why I bought a new one). If you get the temperature right the nappy liner fuses to the Vilene and goes into holes. If it’s too hot the nappy liner melts away, which is what happened here. But there is some left, so it’s not a total failure, and I’m going to do some more machine stitching in the gaps, and hand stitching round the edges, and I’ll post a picture later. At least I tried!

General Comments

I’ve tried to separate out the activities, using notes and photos I took as went along, but really this chapter was tackled as a whole. I experimented with a lot of bits and pieces, and seem to have ended up with a great many sheets of decorated paper and fabric, as well as the transparent surfaces I used for glue writing, so I haven’t used the sketchbook for this chapter, and I’ve stored everything in a box file – the work itself, and the notes and photographs. There’s too much to include everything here! Some of it needs more colour on, but I wanted to get my work posted.

This chapter didn’t start well, and was quite frustrating in some ways. There was a lot of waiting – waiting for glue to dry, waiting for paint to dry, waiting for more layers of paint to dry…  And things didn’t always react the way I expected. But despite the problems I really enjoyed myself!

I found glue tricky to write with. My PVA seemed to be very thick, but when I watered it down it was too runny to hold a pattern. In the end I persevered with it thick, but I couldn’t do small writing, and it made printer paper crinkle and buckle.

So I resorted my little hot glue gun, and was going to work on transparent sheets which I recycled from covers and dividers on books/instructions made and supplied by the local college for a computer course I did when I was first made redundant. They feel like perspex or acetate rather than plastic, but they’re not as stiff as perspex usually is, yet not as flexible as plastic folders. However, I was a bit wary of using hot glue on them without knowing what they’re made of, so I used stiffish black cartridge paper. The letters dried and hardened almost instantaneously, so I rubbed over them with a wax crayon, sloshed on some runny water colour, and left it to dry, still rather unimpressed with things at this stage. But when I looked at it the next morning I thought oooh, nice, maybe this isn’t so bad after all!


Oil pastel (some of it rubbed with my fingers) rubbings. Then I damped the paper and sprinkled it with Brusho powders. A little goes a long way.

I got to work experimenting with my transparent sheets trying out different sorts of glues I found around the house and shed. The transparent sheets were brilliant, nice and smooth to work on, and din’t soak up glue like the printer paper did, but the glues took a long time to dry – more than overnight in most cases. And my writing technique needs a lot of practice – it’s difficult to squeeze glue out evenly, so I got lumps. bumps and gaps, but I think that adds to the effect.

Additionally, I should say that my paints didn’t really pool and move away from the rubbings as I expected. In fact, mostly the paint seemed to cover the letters, but you could still see them. Something not quite right there perhaps, but I’m not sure what – paint too thick or too thin? Rubbing not thick enough? Wrong sort of paper?

Some of the papers I used were spectacularly unsuccessful – some of the tissue paper disintegrated because I had the wash way too watery. Others were too thick to get ecent rubbings – like the heavier quality khadi paper or more upmarket magazines (I got a stash of old magazines, maps and dressmaking patterns in charity shop).


Tissue from dressmaking pattern. I liked working on this – it was tougher than it looked. Wax crayon rubbing, mix of ink,water colour and dye.

Anyway, as I said, I enjoyed this chapter immensely, and was pleased with the results, even though a lot of my work was very messy. I was better organised than I am sometimes, and gathered my materials together beforehand, and planned out my work sessions properly. I even set myself a timetable (which I more or less stuck to) and kept better notes, and wrote the blog a little at a time, as I went along.

I’ve tried lots of new things, and I loved working with the Markal oilsticks on Vilene, and horticultural fleece and things like that,  and using inks and dyes instead of paints. And because they are thin you can see through them to some extent, so I got tremendously excited about layering them over each other, or on top of other fabric or paper. I’m still not sure about the best method of sandwiching them together. I tried Bondaweb and machine stitching, but I dare say a glue stick might work.

I didn’t make any effort to brush proper patterns on my paper and fabric – I just sloshed the washes on and let them dry. Overall, I felt I learned a lot about working with colours, because I discovered fairly quickly that bright, contrasting colours looked better for these activities, but if you go too dark or too thick you lose the rubbings.

DSCN7219 (2)

Brown paper, wax crayon, water colour. Needs taking further.

Findings (2.3.1, Writing with Glue)

Health and Safety: I worked in a well ventilated area, and to start with tried little blobs of glue, because I don’t know what the transparent sheets are made of, and didn’t know if they would react badly with any of the glues.

Hot Glue Gun: I liked working with this, probably because I’m not very patient, and it’s very immediate. It takes a while to get the hang of working with it, and it’s not the easiest thing to control, but as well as lettering you can get long, long, thin, stringy bits and blobs and stuff, which would add interest to rubbings if I could control it better.


Hot glue gun on black cartridge paper, photographed when dry.


Rubbing on khadi paper from hot glue gun writing. I started using red oil pastel, but paper is too thick & I made a mess. So I changed to wax crayon, which worked beautifully. There’s a  pale lemon water colour wash, but it doesn’t show well. It looks messy, but I like the textured effect of wax crayon on khadi paper – I might go over it with a stronger colour (ink or dye perhaps) to make more of it..

PVA: Much more difficult to use than I expected. I couldn’t get the consistency right – it was either too thick, or too thin, very uneven, and took hours to dry. And the rubbings weren’t wonderful. Perhaps I just need more practice with it!


PVA glue on transparent sheet (possibly perspex or acrylic). Photographed against black card, while wet. There is a lot of  reflection. The white square at the top right is a label stuck on the back, to say which glue I used. I put one on all my home-made rubbing plates.


Dried PVA photographed against part of a pink plastic carrier bag. It seems to shrink and lose definition as it dries.


Fat wax crayon rubbing, sponged over with Koh-I-Noor water-based dyes – lovely little solid blocks of colour in a container, which look quite dull until you apply water on a brush or sponge and start painting, then they suddenly zing and pop right out at you.


Oil pastel rubbing with very watery water colours.


Tea light with more Koh-I-Noor water-based dyes. Too many colours. And some black got mixed up there which is not a good look

Hobbycraft Tacky PVA: This, apparently, is PVA that stays tacky for longer than ordinary PVA. It looked the same as ordinary PVA, but was slightly easier to squeeze out, not as unwieldy to work with, and gave smoother rubbings. I preferred it to the normal stuff.


Hobbycraft Tacky PVA on transparent sheet, photographed against black card while wet.


Dried Tacky PVA against the pink plastic (it’s more cheerful than black). Photographed in my little shed, where there’s less reflection!

Wood Glue: This was very thick, but it was easy to work with because it came out of the container so smoothly. It took the better part of 24 hours to dry and, surprisingly, it dried almost completely flat. Even more surprisingly, I got quite good rubbings from it, as long as the paper or fabric was fairly thin. I enjoyed working with this.


Wood glue on transparent sheet, photographed against black paper while wet. Lot of reflection again – you can see my hands and the little ‘point and shoot’ camera!


Wood glue, dried, on a transparent sheet, photographed against the pink plastic bag.You can see how much volume the glue lost, but it was good to work with.


And I got a rubbing like this! Wax crayon over wood glue and water colour. Love it!

General Purpose Bostik: As it dried this made the transparent sheet look as if it had been warped by heat – part of it was all wavy and 3D and part of it looked as if it had been slightly melted or shrunk or something, all kind of drawn up, like skin round a scar. And it smelt very, very peculiar while I was using the glue. It dried quickly, but it was really, really difficult to get a decent rubbing from it, partly because the surface of the transparent sheet was so uneven, and partly because it dried very flat and didn’t provide enough definition. And I was a bit concerned about health and safety issues – I assume the glue reacted with whatever the transparent sheets are made of, so it’s a good job I was in a well ventilated area. On reflection paper or card might have been better.


General Purpose Bostik, on transparent sheet, photographed wet against black card. As it dried the surface got more and more warped.


Part of the surface of the transparent sheet after the General Purpose Bostik dried. It’s difficult to get a clear photo,  and there is a degree of reflection, but the shiny bits are distortion. All that area is kind of bubbly and wavy and puckered, and crinkled.


Green wax crayon Bostik rubbing, with some watered down murky-looking remnants of yellow ink, where I’d accidently used a dirty paint brush/ Photographed when wet.


Green oil pastel, on paper used for mopping up ink in last pic  (it got spilt – bit of a disaster all round really!)



As before, with a bit of pink acrylic wash. I liked it better to start with!

Glitter Glue: Hopeless, because it didn’t adhere to the surface. Whole words fell off, and bits of letters, and it was quite brittle, so more bits broke off as I tried rubbing over them.


Glitter Glue on transparent sheet, when first photographed against black card while wet. It had already lost the cross bars on the ‘ts’ in glitter, and it smudged as it dried. The only lettering left is ‘all that glitter’. And the ‘i’ no longer has a dot! The rubbings (when I had enough lettering left to do them) were actually quite nice, and it was super to write with – the only thing where I managed to do ‘joined-up’ writing! Just a shame it didn’t stay stuck.


Wax crayon rubbing over glitter glue, with green paint wash over the top.

Glue that Stays Tacky for Foils: Couldn’t resist a bit of foiling. Sorry. So I’ve done a sample for rubbing and painting as well.

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Partly dried foil glue on left-over, failed monoprinting experiment (blue and white paint on black paper).



Transfer foils in gold, pink and silver.


Foil glue on paper, left to dry, and painted to see if it forms a resist. It can, allegedly, be reactivated by heat, so I tried to see if I could get metallic coppery tissue to stick. But I couldn’t. Should have thought of this while it was still tacky. And it’s a bit anaemic looking.


Equally anaemic! Wax crayon rubbing over foil glue. It does work, but I think using  brown paper was overly optimistic. And you need to rub quite hard, with a strong colour.

Silcone Sealant (for bathrooms): Very thick indeed – you have to write big! Keeps its three-dimensional shape and white colour when dry – it didn’t seem to have altered at all!.Stays tacky for a long time, and feels slightly soft and rubbery when dry. I achieved the best rubbing by rubbing over the top of each letter very carefully with the side of a fat wax crayon.


Silicone Sealant on a transparent sheet,pictured when completely dry, against the tissue paper I used for a rubbing.


Rubbing of silicone sealant, using side of a blue fat wax crayon on pink textured tissue paper, brushed over with yellow and blue ink. It’s actually quite hard doing a rubbing, because the sealant stands above the surface o the paper, and the tops of the letters are slightly domed, so the area you rub is quite narrow. If I used sealant again I would try and flatten the letters a little, with a piece of stiff perspex. And a darker coloured crayon would have been better.

Findings (2.3.2 Making Rubbings, Paper, Fabric and Other Things)

Paper: I started off just using printer paper, but as my confidence grew I did  rubbings on all kinds of paper – deli paper, tissue paper, khadi paper, brown wrapping paper, old maps, decorated printed and painted papers from earlier work (not so good over thick acrylics, but fine with washes and water colours or inks), paper bags, cartridge paper, old magazines and other pages from the recycling box. Anything seems to work, as long as it’s fairly thin.

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This is a map of part of the Alps, which I bought in a charity shop, because it is in shades of white, grey and black, and it has all these wonderful contour lines, which I promptly covered up! I tried using a blue gelato to rub over glue gun writing, but it wasn’t successful, so I tried wiping it off with a baby wipe but only smeared it everywhere. So I used a black crayon for the rubbing, then crumpled the paper, and rubbed it with sandpaper, then added silver paint, which was overpowering. So I repeated the crumpling and sandpaper, and rubbed a red crayon sideways over everything. I wanted to do something different.

The paper needs to be well anchored to the rubbing plate though for this exercise I don’t think it matters if it shifts – I did a few samples where I deliberately moved the paper into different positions to try and layer or overlap the words. I used plastic laundry pegs to hold the rubbing plate and the paper together.


Rubbing on deli paper over glue gun writing, using wax crayons, with a water colour wash. I kept moving the paper up.

Fabric: Loved this! I used pieces chopped up from a old pillow case, remnants of unused white cotton, and an oddment of very thin silk. Material was stretchier than paper, so it needs to be pulled taut, and held firm. And a certain amount of colour from whatever you use to do the rubbings with goes through to the glue and the surface beneath (especially anything oil-based), but it cleans off with baby wipes, and in any case, it doesn’t matter if you leave it. And it’s better to build up colours layer by layer.


This was a piece of cotton, with a black wax crayon rubbing, that I used blue and red silk paints on, but they soaked in  and looked terrible, so I washed it in cold water, and when it was dry I added a layer of Bondaweb with a red wax crayon rubbing. Iron too hot again I think. It is either maximum heat, or practically cold.

Other Things: At this point I was having such fun I got completely carried away and had a ‘what if’ moment… so I dug out my Vilene (iron-on and stitchable), and the Bondaweb, and I bought some nappy liners, and horticultural fleece from the garden centre (while meeting friends for lunch) and some stuff for suppressing weeds (it looks a bit like black J-cloth). And they were FANTASTIC !!!!!


Black fabric weed suppressant, with a gold Markal rubbing. It takes a rubbing well, especially with MarkL or oil pastel, but trying to paint over it is tricky, because black always sems to swallow colours. I tried lemon Brush ink, but it’s not very noticeable – a white acrylic wash might be better. And you might get a better surface to work on if you washed the fabric first in soapy water – I think it’s been treated with some kind of water repellent.


EYellow Markal rubbing with green and yellow dye washes over agricultural fleece. Like the weed supressant, it takes the rubbing OK, especially with Markal and oil pastels, but doesn’t take a wash so well. I think this mat also have some kind of water repellent on it, so I’m going to try washing a piece with soapy water.


Markal stick on medium weight iron-on Vilene., with dyes and inks.

Findings (2.3.2 Making Rubbings, Mark Makers)

Wax Crayons: Lovely fat crayons (the kind sold for children) are just brilliant on any kind of paper or fabric (and the Vilene and  horticultural fleece and stuff like that – does it all count as fabric I wonder?). And you can use any kind of colour wash over them – paint, ink, dye. Fabulous! And I am in love with those gorgeous Neocolour wax crayons made by Caran d’Ache, so I tried them as well, but had a bit of a disaster because some of the soluble ones had made their way into the box with the water resistant ones, so you can imagine what happened when I added a colour wash! But it looks interesting and I like the effect, so I shall pretend it’s meant to look that way!

Oil Pastels: These also give good rubbings and paper and fabric, and resist any colour wash. The colours are more vibrant than those from wax crayons, but I find them more difficult to work with.

Candle (Well, tealight actually, but it’s the same thing): Good resist qualities – better than anything else I used. But I ended with too much wax on the surface, so  I lost the rubbed letters. I’d rather work with  colour where I can see what I’m doing!


EFrom the recycling box – I used it under a piece of paper I was doing printing stuff with the Brayer and acrylic paints. The paper and paints were uite thick, but the rubbing was OK, and I put a yellow wash over everything.

Markal Oil Sticks: I bought a few of these at the stitching show at the NEC earlier in the year, to have a play, and wasn’t sure how to use them, but thanks to advice from people on the Distant Stitch Facebook forum I’ve using them on fabric and Vilene and stuff, and I think they are WONDERFUL! I was a bit heavy-handed to start with, and made a horrible mess, because I pressed too hard. I got along much better once I started building up lighter layers of colour (that seems to be a basic rule with everything). The colours are very strong (much stronger than anything else I’ve ever used), and they are lovely with inks and dyes. Initially the fabric smells a bit peculiar, and feels kind of sticky, and apparently you’re supposed to leave them to ‘cure’ for a couple of days, but they were fine to work on immediately.


Page from an old book. The paper was quite porous, and the rubbing, with a wax crayon came out quite well, but I’m not sure trying to do a wash with similar colour water colour was a good idea, especially as it turned out that the crayon was soluble.

Findings (2.3.2 and Extra Activity 2, Colour Washes with Paints, Silk Paints, Dyes and Inks)

Health and Safety: I invested in some cheap disposable masks for protection when mixing Brusho powder inks and Procion dyes, but kept forgetting to use them. And I forgot to wear vinyl gloves, and ended up with multi-coloured hands. It took a couple of days to wash off completely! But I did remember to wear my spare pair of glasses – I tend to wear them for messy/splashy stuff, because the lens are not up to date (though they are fine for close work over short periods) so I don’t mind if I get paint or glue or anything  on them, or if they get scratched. Jars with screw-on lids (and labels!) are essential for mixing and storing dye and ink powder.


Water Colours: These are fine, though they dry lighter, so they’ve not always as noticeable as I expected. And they soaked in to fabrics and vanished!

Silk Paints: These were fine on the piece of silk (obviously!), and papers, and Bondaweb and stuff like that, where they spread and flow and look incredibly bright. But they weren’t so good on the old pillowcase, where they didn’t spread, and weren’t as colourful. Next time I use them I’ll sprinkle salt crystals on top, or sugar syrup, because they give interesting effects.

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Red Markal oilstick rubbing from hot glue gun writing. Splodges of yellow, pink and purple silk paints dropped over surface with pipettes. Needs something adding to it, just trying to decide what!

Procion Dyes: I didn’t use any kind of mordant, or the thickening stuff you can get because these were just samples. They gave lovely, vibrant colours on fabric or paper, and I loved working with them.

Brusho Powdered Inks: Again, they gave the most fabulous colours, and I loved working with them.


End of wax crayon, cotton, acrylic paint washes. Lettering not very clear.


Shiny magazine page.

‘Extra’ Extra Activity Calligraphy Workshop


These are some of the pages I worked on at the two-hour ‘Patterns are Letters and Letters are Pattern’ workshop that I went to in Ledbury, way back at Easter, run by Caroline Owen-Thomas. That was when I first arrived at Mum’s because she was ill. I’d expected to be there just a few days, and ended up staying two months (with a few days back home here and there when my elder daughter, and my brother took over. When Mum was on her feet again and I was back home I thought I would hit the ground running, but it’s taken me a long time to get back into routine, and there have been trips to Mum, and hospital visits to arrange for her, and carers, and doctor’s appointments and all sorts of stuff to be sorted out at a distance.

Anyway, she is better, and is happy, and on an even keel, and I finally seem to be back on track so, having finally finished Module 2, Chapter 2, I thought it would be nice to include some of the work I did that did that day and while I was with Mum, as a kind of ‘Extra’ Extra Activity. I have done some more bits and pieces since then, and am hoping it will encourage me to be more adventurous with my Sketchbook.

The workshop was a kind of prequel to calligraphy, concentrating on the kind of marks used in lettering – curves, circles, straight lines, wavy lines… We learned how to hold a pen at different angles to produce the various marks, how to get the right size of letter for the pen you have, how to get the correct balance between letter height and width, and how to do quick, simple embellishments. And we played with all kinds of pens, including tooth brushes, felt tips, calligraphy markers, dip pens, and Caroline’s home-made pens made from things like empty cola cans and strips of balsa wood. I wish I’d made a note of which tools made which marks.

We started off by making marks on huge pieces of brown wrapping paper I folded it up to get these pictures), and moved on to A4 sheets of white paper laid over the top of squared paper on which we rules thick, black lines to use as guidelines. It tied in well with this Distant Stitch course, because you could use it as a jumping off point to try your hand at serious calligraphy, or you could focus very much on patters, whether it’s patterns made from letters, or using letter shapes to interpret patterns in the environment. This one is upside down. Sorry.

We all came away with a couple of pages of her notes, and a calligraphy pen, lots of sheets of paper to write on – and lots of ideas to put into practice! Caroline also recommended two books, both of which I succumbed to – Margaret Daubenay’s Experimenting with Calligraphy’ and Peter Halliday’s ‘Calligraphy Art and Colour’, which cost me less than £1 for the two of them online (plus postage and packing). They are both beautiful, jam-packed with ideas for using lettering, even if you can’t do proper calligraphy.

calligraphy 1

She organised workshops during Ledbury Lettering Festival, which featured her work alongside that of members of The Marches Scribes & Gloucestershire Lettering Arts plus pewter jewellery by Stephen Buck. They also displayed their sketchbooks (which provided a fascinating glimpse into the way these calligraphers worked and developed their ideas), and also gave demonstrations. I’ve got some photos of some of the exhibits, but lost my notes on who did them, so I can’t attribute them.


The exhibition was wonderful, with all kinds of work, from the contemporary to the very traditional (including a beautiful long, thin medieval-style manuscript). There were paintings, and patters, and texts and 3D items – work with letters cut from card or paper and built up from the surface, letters cut-out to reveal the surface beneath, free-standing boxes, books, shaped boxes which folded out to reveal their message…


Caroline was a brilliant teacher – she explained everything so it was really easy to understand, and was very patient, very inspirational, and so enthusiastic she made you feel you could achieve something.


I don’t usually do endorsements, but if anyone is in the Ledbury area (it’s in Herefordshire, near the borders with Worcestershire and Gloucestershire), and wants to do a calligraphy course or workshop, I’d recommend Caroline. She is on Facebook, and her phone number and email address appears on flyers and leaflets, but I don’t like to use them without checking it out with her, but I’m happy to pass it on if anyone wants.